Ecotoxicology

The ECOTOXICOLOGY Unit of ChemService has been operating in accordance with GLP (Good Laboratory Practices) since 2004, the year of its foundation. Experimental tests are conducted according to internationally acknowledged methods (i.e. OECD, US EPA, OPPTS, Regulations (EC) N° 440/2008).

The Unit is made of a number of laboratories: terrestrial toxicology (earthworms, soil microrganisms, artropodes, terrestrial plants), water toxicology (algae, shellfish, fish, water plants), biodegradability and activated sludges.

Moreover, the ecotoxicology Lab is equipped with a plant for the production of reconstituited water of 500 L/ha capacity, feeding aquaria for static, semi-static and continous flow tests on fish.

Structures and equipment in the Ecotoxicology laboratories make ChemService be one of the major actors in Europe and the leader in Italy. 


In compliance with the MAD principle, ecotoxicology studies in GLP conducted in compliance with OECD guidelines supplied by ChemService are recognized and accepted in Europe, North America (USA), South America (i.e. Brazil, Argentina), Asia (i.e. India, China, Malaysia, Thailand), Australia, Africa (i.e. Souh Africa).

NOTA: GLP studies conducted in compliance with internationally accepted guidelines (OECD CIPAC,etc) are needed to obtain the authorization to market and use technical and formulated  preparations (plant protection products, biocides, chemicals, cosmetics and veterinary products) by European authorities (European Member States, EFSA, ECHA, EMEA, etc.) as well as extra-European autorities (US EPA, US FDA, ANVISA in  Brazil,  SENASA in Argentina, CIBRC in India, etc.).

AVAILABLE StudiES

  Aquatic ecotoxicology

SHORT-TERM TESTS

  • Acute toxicity on shellfish, on: Daphnia magna. Methods: EU C.2, OECD 202, USA OPPTS850.1010. Test: static or semi-static.
  • Algal growth inhibition test, on: Scenedesmus subspicatus, Pseudokirchneriella sub capitata, Anaboena flos aquae. Methods: EU C.3, OECD 201, USA OPPTS 850.5400.
  • Acute toxicity on fish, on*: Danio rerio, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Dicentrarchus labrax. Methods: EU C.1, OECD 203; USA OPPTS 850.1075. Test: static, semi-static or continous flow.
  • Growth inhibition test, on: Lemna sp. Methods: OECD 221, USA OPPTS 850.4400.
  • Toxicity test on aquatic plants growth. Species: Myriophyllum aquaticum. Method: AMRAP.

LONG-TERM TESTS

  • Long-term reproduction toxicity on shellfish. Species: Daphnia magna. Methods: EU C.20, OECD 211, USA OPPTS 850.1300. Test: semi-static. Duration: 21 days.
  • Long-term toxicity on fish. Species*: Danio rerio, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Dicentrarchus labrax. Method: OECD 204. Test: semi-static/continous flow. Duration: 14÷28 days.

* Tests on other species can be performed upon request (i.e. Lepomis macrochirus; Cyprinus carpio).

  Critical substances

Option to select the most appropriate essay to allow the best analysis of unstable substances in aqueous matrix (substances that are not easily soluble in water, photodegradable, biodegradable, etc.) according to OECD N. 23 guideline (Guidance document on aquatic toxicity testing of difficult substances and mixtures).

  Terrestrial ecotoxicology (earthworms, soil microorganisms, artropodes, terrestrial plants)

SHORT-TERM TESTS

  • Acute toxicity on earthworms. Species: Eisenia fetida. Methods: EU C.8, OECD 207.
  • Toxicity on soil microorganisms – inhibition of nitrification capacity. Methods: OECD 216, EU C.21.
  • Toxicity on soil microorganisms – inhibition of carbonation capacity. Methods: OECD 217, EU C.22.

LONG-TERM TestS

  • Chronic toxicity on earthworms. Species: Eisenia fetida. Method: OECD 222.
  • Sublethal toxicity on earthworms. Species: Eisenia fetida. Method: USA OPPTS 850.6200.
  • Terrestrial plants. Methods OECD 208 and OECD 227.
  • Non-target artropodes. Species: Folsomia candida (OECD 232), Hypoaspis aculeifer (OECD 226) and Chironomus riparius (OECD 2018 and OECD 2019).

  Biodegradability - Ready biodegradability studies (biotic)

Test performed with micro-organisms of activated sludges from waste water plants. Duration: 28 days.

  • Carbon Dioxide Evolution Test, OECD 301 B, EU C.4-C; USA OPPTS 835.3110.
  • Manometric Respirometry Test, OECD 301 F, EU C.4-D; USA OPPTS 835.3110.
  • Closed Bottle Test, OECD 301 D, EU C.4-E; USA OPPTS 835.3110.

  Inhibition test on breathing of activated sludges, methods  EU C11, OECD 209; USA OPPTS 850.6800.

  Classification of wastes for environmental danger - H14 classification

  Analytical determinations

  • Validation of the analytical methods and quantification of residues in each of the matrices used in biological tests (water, soil, living organism), through instrumental analysis performed with HPLC/MS QQQ- GC/MS QQQ- ICP/MS.